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The Celtic Shaman John Matthews. The British in India David Gilmour. The hand that held the gun Eoin Shanahan. Seeing Further Bill Bryson.
The Scottish Clearances T. The Anarchy William Dalrymple. Legacy Thomas Harding. The English defenses, on the other hand, were thin and outdated; England had too few soldiers and they were at best only partially trained. Spain had chosen England's weakest link and probably could have captured London in a week. Parker adds that a Catholic uprising in the north and in Ireland could have brought total defeat.
The discoveries of Christopher Columbus electrified all of western Europe, especially maritime powers like England. Cabot sailed in and reached Newfoundland.
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Spain was well established in the Americas, while Portugal, in union with Spain from , had an ambitious global empire in Africa, Asia and South America. France was exploring North America. Martin Frobisher landed at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island in August ; He returned in , claiming it in Queen Elizabeth's name, and in a third voyage tried but failed to found a settlement in Frobisher Bay. From to , Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe.
John's together with all land within two hundred leagues to the north and south of it. In , the queen granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter for the colonisation of Virginia ; it was named in her honour. Raleigh and Elizabeth sought both immediate riches and a base for privateers to raid the Spanish treasure fleets.
Raleigh sent others to found the Roanoke Colony ; it remains a mystery why the settlers all disappeared. It established trading posts, which in later centuries evolved into British India , on the coasts of what is now India and Bangladesh. Larger scale colonisation began shortly after Elizabeth's death.
England in this era had some positive aspects that set it apart from contemporaneous continental European societies. Torture was rare, since the English legal system reserved torture only for capital crimes like treason  —though forms of corporal punishment, some of them extreme, were practised. The persecution of witches began in , and hundreds were executed, although there was nothing like the frenzy on the Continent.
Elizabeth managed to moderate and quell the intense religious passions of the time.
This was in significant contrast to previous and succeeding eras of marked religious violence. Elizabeth said "I have no desire to make windows into mens' souls". Her desire to moderate the religious persecutions of previous Tudor reigns — the persecution of Catholics under Edward VI, and of Protestants under Mary I — appears to have had a moderating effect on English society.
Elizabeth, Protestant, but undogmatic one,  reinstated the Book of Common Prayer with modifications which made clear that the Church of England believed in the spiritual Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Communion but without a definition how in favor of leaving this a mystery, and she had the Black Rubric removed from the Articles of Faith: this had allowed kneeling to receive communion without implying that by doing so it meant the real and essential presence of Christ in the bread and wine: she believed it so.https://kerdomefea.tk
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She was not able to get an unmarried clergy or the Protestant Holy Communion celebrated to look like a Mass, . The Injunctions of forbade any doctrines that did not conform to the teaching of the Church Fathers and the Catholic Bishops. The Queen's hostility to strict Calvinistic doctrines blocked the Radicals. Almost no original theological thought came out of the English Reformation: instead the Church relied on the Catholic Consensus of the first Four Ecumenical Councils.
The preservation of many Catholic doctrines and practices was the cuckoos nest that eventually resulted in the formation of the Via Media during the 17th century. For a number of years refrained from persecuting Catholics because she was against Catholicism, not her Catholic subjects if they made no trouble.
Elizabeth I | Hampton Court Palace | Historic Royal Palaces
In , Pope Pius V declared Elizabeth a heretic who was not the legitimate queen and that her subjects no longer owed her obedience. The pope sent Jesuits and seminarians to secretly evangelize and support Catholics. After several plots to overthrow her, Catholic clergy were mostly considered to be traitors, and were pursued aggressively in England. Often priests were tortured or executed after capture unless they cooperated with the English authorities. People who publicly supported Catholicism were excluded from the professions; sometimes fined or imprisoned.
Lacking a dominant genius or a formal structure for research the following century had both Sir Isaac Newton and the Royal Society , the Elizabethan era nonetheless saw significant scientific progress. The astronomers Thomas Digges and Thomas Harriot made important contributions; William Gilbert published his seminal study of magnetism, De Magnete, in Substantial advancements were made in the fields of cartography and surveying.
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