In Greece, Christianity eventually superseded the Asclepian religious approach to healing. This involved visiting the temples of Asclepias, consulting the priests, and perhaps sleeping there overnight. However, these religions each managed to coexist relatively peacefully with Hippocratic medicine and its descendents right up to the conquest of Alexandria the center of Hellenistic medicine in AD After that event, Islamic physicians assimilated the medical teachings of the Greeks and made their own independent contributions to the field.
Magner cites some of the work of Avicenna as an early example of psychotherapy:. The man mooed loudly, refused to eat, and begged to be killed and made into stew. The patient cheered up immediately when Avicenna sent word that the butcher would come to slaughter him.
Basic aims and methods
Finally, Avicenna came to the sickroom with a butcher's knife and asked for the cow. Mooing happily, the young man was bound hand and foot, but after a thorough examination, Avicenna declared that the cow was too thin to be butchered. The patient ate so eagerly that he soon recovered his strength and was cured of his delusion. According to Dols and Magner , the Muslims also built hospitals including provisions for the care of the mentally ill. The largest of these was established in Cairo in Formerly a palace, this hospital had a capacity of patients.
Other such hospitals were located in Baghdad and Damascus and existed as early as the ninth century AD.
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The treatments for mental patients included baths, massage, bloodletting, leeches, cautery, medication with purgatives, emetics, sedatives, and opium. There was also concern for the patient's diet, opportunities to participate in pleasant conversation, and diversions such as music, dance, and drama. If necessary, Dervishes performed exorcisms. Some violent patients were in chains, and whips were used on occasion. The village idiot, the court jester, and the wise fool were tolerated forms of possible derangement.
The archetypal wise fool in Islamic literature is Buhlul, the entertaining and harmless critic of social conditions and mores. He typically lurks undisturbed in the cemetary, is molested in the streets by children, or is fettered and put in chains. Having abandoned everyday cares, he trusts in God's aid and men's charity.
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His intense sensitivity plays on the ambiguity between the unholy and the holy fool. Like Judaism and Christianity, Islam is rich and varied in its creativity and cultural expression. It is a challenge for Muslim believers and scholars, both Muslim and non-Muslim, to account for the variations of belief and practice as they have been expressed for over 1, years in richly diverse cultural and historical traditions. If such texts and ideas are too closely bound to their original settings, no matter how persuasive for their original audience, they risk failing to attract wider audiences.
Such texts must remain relevant to the social and political contexts of succeeding generations. It also encouraged attention to the specifics of who advocated or explained particular religious orientations and practices, whether they were influential in their own society or marginal, appealing primarily to a particular social group or category. In some settings, individuals claiming descent from the family of the Prophet Muhammad were given precedence.
Yet such ideas and practices also shed light on ideas of the person and how both women and men in societies with such practices express and explore alternative social realities Boddy This gendered division is made all the more plausible by the fact that until recent decades women had lower levels of education and mobility than men.
Colonial ethnographers regarded the two events as separate, as do Muslim intellectuals. Hammoudi argues that the masquerade evokes the contradictions implicit in the cultural classifications that regulate ordinary behavior, including gender roles, directing caricature and self-directed irony against local social hierarchies, tradition, and innovation.
The canonical Muslim sacrifice, on the other hand, embodies the ideal community. The canonical sacrifice and masquerade inherently conjoin ritual piety and impiety, embodying an ongoing contest over significance and interpretation in which existing and alternative social orders are embodied and intertwined.
Dale F. Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, is rich and varied in its creativity and cultural expression. It also encouraged attention to the specifics of who advocated or explained particular religious orientations and practices, whether they were influential in their own society or marginal, appealing primarily to a particular social group or category Von Grunebaum, Yet such ideas and practices also shed light on ideas of the person and how both women and men in societies with such practices express and explore alternative social realities Boddy, Western religions and cultures, including Judaism , Christianity, and Islam, have had a tendency — because of their focus more though not exclusively on the exoteric aspects of their religions, at least in their everyday activities — to focus more on aspects of outer peace, including social justice questions and action to change the external world, as a precondition for peace in the world.
These can take the form of the Kabala in Judaism , Gnostic Christianity in Christianity , and Sufism in Islam as examples, although there have always been some mystics in the mainstream forms of all the Western religions as well. Lewis Z. Jane H.
There are several aspects of traditional Judaism that may impact the development of the therapeutic relationship as well as therapy with a Jewish client. As discussed earlier, Schlosser states that fear of persecution and antisemitism may create a sense of wariness among Jews entering psychotherapy, and Schnall states that these feelings may be most salient among Orthodox Jews. In fact, Schnall states that Orthodox Jews may resist psychotherapy due to the fear that therapists will not respect values that are important to their community.
ecneuropnaabi.gq As such, both Jewish and non-Jewish clinicians must engage in a process of self-assessment to determine what, if any, biases they might hold regarding Jews, Judaism, and Jewish culture Schlosser, ; negative attitudes or beliefs must be dealt with prior to providing therapy to Jews Langman, ; Schlosser, In addition to issues relevant to the clinician themselves, it is important to consider more client-centered issues that may affect the formation and development of the therapeutic relationship.
With regards to Jewish identity, it is important to recognize that not every Jewish client will openly identify as a Jew Schlosser, This may be more crucial for non-Orthodox Jews, who typically do not wear any visible markers of being Jewish, and for these Jews, disclosing their Jewish identity may be a decision that is carefully considered by assessing the safety of the environment Schlosser, Clients may also base their decision to disclose their Jewish identity based on whether or not they think their Jewish identity is relevant to the presenting problem Schlosser, Additionally, Jews will vary in the saliency of their religious and cultural identities, and as such, mental health professionals must develop an understanding of how religious identity and cultural identity differ and how the saliency of each of these identities may impact on the presenting problem.
This method of therapy may be uncomfortable for an Orthodox client. Stock Image. Published by Polity Press, Used Condition: Very Good Soft cover. Save for Later. About this Item pages. Very good copy with no creases on the spine. Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question. About this title Synopsis: This book is a major contribution to the sociology of religion and to religious and biblical studies.
Store Description 21 Years experience. Weber was neither a Biblical scholar nor an Orientalist; his work was not based on primary sources but on the secondary literature on the period. While focusing in the pre-exilic history of the Hebrews, Weber's work included Second Temple Judaism. The natural and cultural background of ancient Judaism. The social structure and its setting -- The Gerim and the ethic of the patriarchs -- The covenant and confederacy. The social laws of the Israelite legal collections -- Warfare and war prophecy -- Social significance of the war god of the confederacy -- Priesthood, cult, and ethics.
Cultic peculiarities of Yahwism -- Priests and the cult monopoly of Jerusalem -- Forms of Israelite intellectuality in the pre-prophetic era -- Ethics and eschatology of Yahwism -- Intercultural relations in pre-exilic ethics. The establishment of the Jewish pariah people.
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